Inhibition of pre-existing natural periodontitis in non-human primates by a locally administered peptide inhibitor of complement C3

  • Human periodontitis is associated with overactivation of complement, which is triggered by different mechanisms converging on C3, the central hub of the system. This study assessed whether the C3 inhibitor Cp40 inhibits naturally-occurring periodontitis in non-human primates.
  • Non-human primates with chronic periodontitis were intra-gingivally injected with Cp40 either once (5 animals) or three times (10 animals) weekly for six weeks followed by a 6-week follow-up period.
  • Whether administered once or three times weekly, Cp40 caused a significant reduction in clinical indices that measure periodontal inflammation (gingival index and bleeding on probing), tissue destruction (probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level) or tooth mobility.
  • These clinical changes were associated with significantly reduced levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and decreased numbers of osteoclasts in bone biopsies. The protective effects of Cp40 persisted, albeit at reduced efficacy, for at least six weeks following drug discontinuation.
  • Conclusion: Cp40 inhibits pre-existing chronic periodontal inflammation and osteoclastogenesis in non-human primates, suggesting a novel adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapy for treating human periodontitis.
Author and source information

Authors: Maekawa T, Briones RA, Resuello RR, Tuplano JV, Hajishengallis E, Kajikawa T, Koutsogiannaki S, Garcia CA, Ricklin D, Lambris JD, Hajishengallis G.
Reference: J Clin Periodontol. 2016 Jan 5. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12507. [Epub ahead of print] Source: